NEW REPORT: The State of CLM and AI-Powered Contract Intelligence

What is a Contractual Obligation?

Contractual obligations are the essential components of any legally binding agreement. These obligations represent the duties and responsibilities that each party must adhere to under the terms of a contract. Understanding contractual obligations is crucial for businesses, as it helps ensure compliance, mitigate risks, and promote successful relationships. In short, contractual obligations bind the parties involved in an agreement.  

The Importance of Contractual Obligations

Think of a contract as a roadmap for a collaborative effort. Contractual obligations act as the directions, clearly defining what each party needs to do (or avoid doing) to reach the desired outcome. This clarity encourages:

Trust and Cooperation:

Fulfilling obligations builds trust and reliability between parties. It establishes a reputation for dependability, which is crucial for maintaining long-term business relationships.

Legal Protection:

Adhering to contractual obligations provides legal protection to all parties involved. In the event of a breach, the injured party can seek remedies through the legal system.

Risk Management:

By outlining expectations, contracts mitigate risks by providing recourse in case of non-compliance.

Dispute Resolution:

When disagreements arise, well-defined obligations provide a framework for resolving them efficiently.

What Does a Contractual Obligation Look Like?

Contractual obligations can take many forms, but they typically fall into two main categories:


These obligations require a party to do something. This could involve delivering goods, performing a service, or making a payment by a specific deadline.


Sometimes, a contract might obligate a party to refrain from doing something. For instance, a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) prevents a party from sharing confidential information.

The specific obligations within a contract will vary depending on the nature of the agreement.

Types of Contractual Obligations

While we covered the two main categories of "action" and "inaction,” contractual obligations are more specialized and nuanced in the real world. Here's a breakdown of some common types:

1. Delivery Obligations:

These obligations define what will be delivered, when, and how. In a sales contract, this could be the product specifications, delivery date, and shipping method. For service contracts, it might involve the specific services provided, timelines for completion, and deliverables.

2. Payment Terms:

This type of obligation outlines the financial exchange between parties. It specifies the amount to be paid, the payment schedule (e.g., installments, full payment upfront), and the accepted payment methods. Late fees or penalties for delayed payments might also be included here.

3. Performance Obligations:

These obligations set the standards for how a service is provided or a product functions. For instance, a construction contract might outline quality benchmarks for materials and workmanship. In a service contract, it could detail the level of expertise or specific procedures required.

4. Penalties and Remedies:

This type of obligation outlines the consequences of breaching the contract. It might specify financial penalties (like liquidated damages) or allow for contract termination in case of non-compliance. In some cases, it might detail dispute resolution mechanisms like arbitration.

5. Termination Clauses:

These obligations define the conditions under which the contract can be terminated by either party. This could be due to non-performance, unforeseen circumstances, or the completion of a specific project. Termination clauses often specify the process for ending the agreement and any associated fees.

6. Confidentiality Obligations:

These obligations protect sensitive information and prevent unfair competition. Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) are designed to prevent a party from sharing confidential information with unauthorized parties.

7. Indemnity Obligations:

Indemnity obligations require one party to compensate the other for any losses or damages incurred due to specific events or actions.

In Context: Contract Obligations in Commercial Agreements

Strong contracts act as a foundation for successful business ventures. They achieve this by clearly outlining various obligations – financial (pricing, payment terms), operational (delivery timelines, quality standards), and ethical (environmental, social responsibility). Contracts also specify clear ownership of both tangible and intangible assets, eliminate ambiguity with precise definitions, and ensure timely completion with strict deadlines. 

When companies understand these obligations, they can effectively navigate legal requirements, easily manage financial responsibilities, and address societal expectations. This comprehensive approach to contracts paves the way for long-term business success.

Financial Obligations

Financial obligations capture the commercial essence of a contract, including critical aspects like contract value, pricing structures, payment terms, discounts, and rebates. These obligations are inherently linked to the products or services delivered, requiring meticulous attention to the commercial terms and the associated scope or quality of delivery.

Organizations use ERP systems to monitor commercial compliance effectively. Traditional capabilities such as tiered pricing, 2-way, and 3-way invoice matching have been fundamental in ERPs for decades. However, as business models evolve, these traditional systems often fall short. Modern commerce, with its preference for subscription-based models—favored for their predictable revenue streams—and leasing arrangements now commonplace in aviation, construction equipment, and sectors like industrial appliances, demands more sophisticated management tools. These tools must not only capture contract terms in a structured manner but also supplement ERP functionalities to oversee complex pricing and payment structures dynamically.

Regulatory Obligations

In recent decades, there has been a significant rise in regulatory demands across various sectors, from general data protection regulations like GDPR and the shifting legal landscape of non-compete agreements to specific financial regulations like Dodd-Frank and stringent standards in healthcare and pharmaceuticals. While organizations can manage known regulatory environments, emerging technologies such as blockchain and generative AI introduce gray areas in compliance that lack clear regulatory frameworks.

Effective management of regulatory obligations involves staying updated with the latest legal interpretations and managing associated risks, as eliminating them is often not feasible. Especially for global enterprises with extensive supply chains, adhering to local and international laws necessitates robust programs that can handle complex compliance requirements. Maintaining strong, transparent relationships with suppliers is crucial in ensuring adherence to regional and international laws.

Societal Obligations

Beyond regulatory compliance, organizations increasingly commit to societal good, codifying critical issues such as climate change, environmental sustainability, ethical AI, and human rights in contracts. Fulfilling these societal obligations contributes positively to the world and enhances the reputation and longevity of the organizations involved. Contractual commitments to societal goals help ensure that business practices align with broader social values, reinforcing corporate responsibility and ethical operations.

See how applying the RICE framework to contract management can help you prioritize the most impactful agreements for your business. 

Challenges in Managing Contract Obligations Manually

Contract management can mean different things to different organizations. Options can range from filing cabinets and Excel spreadsheets to shared drives to an AI-powered contract lifecycle management(CLM) system that provides real-time contract performance insights—and everything in between. Barring a central digital system to manage contracts, the common challenges companies face without the benefit of a centralized digital system to manage their contractual obligations are below.

Missed Deadlines and Non-Compliance:

Without automated reminders and alerts, crucial deadlines for payments, reports, or deliverables can be missed, potentially leading to financial penalties or legal consequences.

Lack of Visibility:

Manually tracking contracts can be chaotic, especially when siloed across departments or with a high volume. Important deadlines, renewal dates, and critical terms can easily get lost or overlooked.

Inefficient Communication and Collaboration:

Spreading contracts across emails, filing cabinets, or personal drives makes it difficult for teams to collaborate effectively on obligations. Communication breakdowns can lead to errors and missed opportunities.

Difficulty with Version Control:

Keeping track of different versions of a contract throughout negotiations and revisions can be a quagmire without dedicated software. This can lead to confusion and disputes about which terms are final.

Increased Risk of Errors:

Relying on manual calculations and data entry for financial obligations like pricing or payment terms increases the chance of errors. This can lead to financial losses or disputes with other parties.

Limited Reporting and Analytics:

Without a central repository and reporting tools, it's difficult to gain insights into your contractual landscape. This makes it hard to identify trends, optimize contract terms, or assess potential risks.

Security Concerns:

Physical copies or unsecured digital files can be vulnerable to loss, theft, phishing, and other unauthorized access. Contract management software offers stronger security features to protect sensitive information.

In short, managing contracts without dedicated software is a recipe for inefficiency, non-compliance, and increased risk.

Managing Obligations with a Contract Management Platform

A contract management platform acts as a central nervous system for your contractual obligations. It promotes visibility into important data, streamlines processes, and empowers companies to manage their agreements effectively, leading to increased efficiency, reduced risk, and a stronger bottom line. 

Centralized Repository:

Say goodbye to scattered agreements siloed across different departments. The software is a secure hub for all your agreements and is accessible to authorized personnel. No more scrambling through filing cabinets or chasing down lost emails.

Automated Reminders and Alerts:

Never miss a deadline again. The software keeps you on top of critical dates like renewals, payments, and reporting requirements with automated notifications.

Streamlined Workflow and Collaboration:

Contract management software facilitates seamless collaboration. Teams can work together on documents, track revisions, and ensure everyone is on the same page. Version control ensures you're always referencing the final agreement.

Enhanced Efficiency:

Reduce manual tasks and free up valuable time. The software automates repetitive tasks like data entry and simplifies processes like contract reviews and approvals.

Reduced Risk of Errors:

A standardized clause library and built-in templates minimize the chance of errors in financial obligations or key terms. This translates to fewer headaches and potential disputes.

Powerful Reporting and Analytics:

Gain valuable insights into your contracts. The software allows you to analyze trends, identify potential risks, and optimize contract terms for better negotiation leverage.

Improved Security:

Contract management software offers robust security features to protect sensitive information. Documents are encrypted, and access is controlled, reducing the risk of data breaches.

Learn how the application of artificial intelligence to contracts has evolved alongside contractual obligation management with this article.

The Icertis Platform

Today, more than a third of the Fortune 100 companies trust the Icertis Contract Intelligence platform to transform the contract management lifecycle at their organizations. From automated tracking of obligations and contract analysis to risk assessment, Icertis uses AI to empower you to extract valuable insights from your contracts, reduce errors, and ensure compliance. The Icertis platform keeps your data secure on Microsoft Azure OpenAI, and it never goes out of your subscription.

To learn more about how your organization can benefit from this secure, AI-powered contract management platform, request a demo today.

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